Developing priority variables (“ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables” — eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems

first_imgReliable statements about variability and change in marine ecosystems and their underlying causes are needed to report on their status and to guide management. Here we use the Framework on Ocean Observing (FOO) to begin developing ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables (eEOVs) for the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). An eEOV is a defined biological or ecological quantity, which is derived from field observations, and which contributes significantly to assessments of Southern Ocean ecosystems. Here, assessments are concerned with estimating status and trends in ecosystem properties, attribution of trends to causes, and predicting future trajectories. eEOVs should be feasible to collect at appropriate spatial and temporal scales and are useful to the extent that they contribute to direct estimation of trends and/or attribution, and/or development of ecological (statistical or simulation) models to support assessments. In this paper we outline the rationale, including establishing a set of criteria, for selecting eEOVs for the SOOS and develop a list of candidate eEOVs for further evaluation. Other than habitat variables, nine types of eEOVs for Southern Ocean taxa are identified within three classes: state (magnitude, genetic/species, size spectrum), predator–prey (diet, foraging range), and autecology (phenology, reproductive rate, individual growth rate, detritus). Most candidates for the suite of Southern Ocean taxa relate to state or diet. Candidate autecological eEOVs have not been developed other than for marine mammals and birds. We consider some of the spatial and temporal issues that will influence the adoption and use of eEOVs in an observing system in the Southern Ocean, noting that existing operations and platforms potentially provide coverage of the four main sectors of the region — the East and West Pacific, Atlantic and Indian. Lastly, we discuss the importance of simulation modelling in helping with the design of the observing system in the long term. Regional boundary: south of 30°S.last_img read more


first_imgStuttgart, GermanyMarch 5 – 7 1997Eurocargo ’97. Huss-Verlag GmbH, Joseph-Dollinger-Bogen 5, D-80807 München, Germany.Fax: +49 89 323 91-416New York, USAMarch 10 – 12 1997Annual Global Forum on Railroad Finance. Information Management Network, 25 West 45th Street, Suite 1505, New York 10036, USA.Fax: +1 212 768 2484e-mail: [email protected], JapanMarch 11 – 13 1997Sanyo Shinkansen 25-year Commemorative International High Speed Conference. Director, High Speed Conference Secretariat, West Japan Railway, 4-24 Shibata 2-chome, Kita-ku, 530 Osaka, Japan.Fax: +81 6376 6025London, Great BritainMarch 12 – 13 1997Competitive Opportunities and Critical Commercial Issues in Pan-European Rail Freight. SMi Ltd,1 New Concordia Wharf, Mill Street, London SE12BB, Great Britain.Fax: +44 171 252 2272Amsterdam, NetherlandsMarch 13 – 14 1997European Rail ’97. Business Seminars International Ltd, Sussex House, High Street, Battle, East Sussex, TN330AL, Great Britain.Fax: +44 1424 773334London, Great BritainMarch 13 – 14 1997Optimising Safety Investment in Emerging Urban Transit Systems. AIC Conferences Ltd, 2nd Floor, 100 Hatton Garden, London EC1N8NX, Great Britain.Fax: +44 171 242 2320Washington DC, USAMarch 18 – 19 1997Opportunities in Railway Restructuring. World Research Group, 12 E 49th Street, 17th Floor, New York NY10017, USA.Fax: +1 212 421 9410e-mail: [email protected] KongMarch 18 – 20 1997Asia Rail ’97 and Rail Ops seminars. IIR Ltd, 20/F Siu ON Centre, 188 Lockhart Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong.Fax: +852 2507 5666Paris, FranceMarch 19 1997Euromodal ’97. UIC, 16 Rue Jean Rey, 75015 Paris, France.Fax: +33 1 44 49 20 29Hanoi, VietnamMarch 19 – 21 1997Vietnam Transport Infrastructure Congress ’97. IBC Asia Ltd, 268 Orchard Road, #18-02, Singapore 238856.Fax: +65 733 5087Lille, FranceMarch 20 – 21 1997The Channel Tunnel Experience – Lessons for the Future. CT97 Secretariat, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Savoy Place, London WC2R0BL, Great Britain.Fax: +44 171 240 8830London, Great BritainMarch 20 – 21 1997Second Annual Conference on Electronic Payment Systems in Transport. IBC Technical Services Ltd, Gilmoora House, 57-61 Mortimer Street, London W1N8JX, Great Britain.Fax: +44 171 636 1976Cape Town, South AfricaApril 7 – 11 19976th International Heavy Haul Association conference – Beyond 2000. Danie Van Zijl, Spoornet, Paul Kruger Building, Wolmarans Street, Johannesburg, South Africa 2000.Fax: +27 11 773 2393Hannover, GermanyApril 14 – 19 1997Rail Transport Technology at Hannover Fair ’97. Wolfgang Pech, Deutsche Messe AG, Messegelände, D-30521 Hannover, Germany.Fax: +49 511 89 32694York, Great BritainApril 23 – 24 1997Train Maintenance Tomorrow … and Beyond. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1 Birdcage Walk, London SW1H9JJ.Fax: +44 171 222 4557Utrecht, NetherlandsApril 23 – 25 1997Rail Tech Holland conference and exhibition. Europoint BV, Johan H J Haarhuis, PO Box 344, 3840 AH Harderwijk, Netherlands.Fax: +31 341 425614Dallas, Texas, USAMay 13 – 15 1997AAR 10th Annual Hazardous Materials Seminar. Cyndi Stone, Association of American Railroads, 50 F Street NW, Room 5003A, Washington DC 20001, USA.Fax: +1 202 639 2204Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaMay 14 – 16 1997Exporail (Asia) 97, and associated conference on Mass Transit Management and seminars on Vehicle & Track Performance. Interfama Brooks Exhibitions Pte Ltd, Forum Place, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL100RN, Great Britain.Fax: +44 1707 275544Conference details from Judy Whitham, Independent Technical Conferences.Fax: +44 1234 841375Seminar details from Rachel Connix, Institution of Civil Engineers.Fax: +44 171 233 1743Buenos Aires, ArgentinaMay 19 – 22 1997Latin Rail ’97. Christian Ernst Suarez, AIC Conferences Chile, Nueva de Lyon 96, Of 405, Santiago, Chile.Fax: +56 2 246 8109København, DenmarkMay 22 – 26 1997High Speed Train exhibition. Secretariat for DSB Jubilee, Sølvgade 40, DK-1349 København K, Denmark.Fax: +45 3315 0400Yangon, MyanmarMay 22 – 26 1997Myanmar Transport Expo ’97. CP Exhibition, Room 1703, 109 Gloucester Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong.Fax: +852 2511 9692e-mail: [email protected]r.netLuzern, SwitzerlandMay 26 – 28 1997International congress ’Sustainable top achievements of the railways – long-term solutions’. Projektleitung Jubiläum 1997, SBB, Mittelstrasse 43, CH-3030 Bern, Switzerland.Fax: +41 512 20 40 99Stuttgart, GermanyJune 2 – 6 199752nd UITP World Congress and City Transport 97 exhibition. UITP, Avenue de l’Uruguay 19, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.Fax: +32 2 660 10 72last_img read more